From the Ancestry
As a math professor, I am always asked what mathematics has to do with genealogy. Plenty. Besides my personal favorite of land platting, the analytical and logical skills one gains from mathematics come in extremely handy when solving genealogical problems. This week we look at one mathematician's framework for handling problems and see how it can relate to family history problems as well.
George Polya was a Hungarian born mathematician who advocated the use of a general problem solving strategy. While his work was focused on mathematical dilemmas, family historians can benefit from applying this same strategy as well. When you have no strategy, the brick walls rarely come tumbling down.
Polya's strategy had four basic steps:
This week we will look at these steps one by one.
Understanding the Problem
Well-defined problems should focus on a person, a place, and an event.
Then there are problems such as:
These problems are not specific. The statements are too vague and either unrealistic or need to be broken down into smaller, more manageable pieces. Learning "everything" about one family or couple may be possible over the long term; rarely is it possible in an afternoon. One or two records will not reveal a relative's "whole story." Information gleaned from records must be accurately interwoven with about the history, culture, and lifestyle of the area and era in which the person lived. This takes time. Most successful researchers begin with a specific goal.
Understanding the problem is more than simply stating the research goal precisely. There are many things that should be learned about if the researcher is not already familiar with them. These items include:
One place to start learning about the records applicable to any problem is to read the Family History Library's research guide (www.familysearch.org) to the areas under study. Those researching problems in the United States can also refer to the appropriate section of Red Book (published by Ancestry) for information on local and state records. Both the Red Book and the Family History Library research guides contain references to additional reference materials, including foreign language word lists where appropriate.
Local and regional histories are also suggested reading material for additional background information. Even "non-genealogy" books may provide a background not gained elsewhere. Historical studies, dissertations, and papers published in academic journals may provide entirely new insight into your ancestors and their problems, positively impacting your research. As an example, Prairie Patrimony (Sonya Salamon, University of North Carolina Press, 1995) discusses agricultural inheritance patterns in the upper Midwest. It confirmed things I had already surmised from personal experience and in researching many families from one of the ethnic groups discussed in the book. Salamon also helped to explain things I did not quite understand and confirmed trends I had noticed. The more you know, the better prepared you will be to solve your problem. Material written by a non-genealogist occasionally brings a fresh perspective.
If your problem involves the interpretation of a document, make certain you understand the language and the terminology being used during the time period. Sometimes completely typing a document or even reading it out loud will cause you to notice a detail or an interpretation that had been overlooked. It may be necessary to have someone else look at the document with a fresh, unbiased perspective.
Learning about the methodology appropriate for the area is crucial. One way to do this is to read journal articles for the area under study. If a subscription is out of the question, determine if any nearby libraries subscribe to genealogical journals applicable to your area of interest. Many will contain case studies where other family problems have been solved. The National Genealogical Society Quarterly and the American Genealogist are two national magazines that contain excellent well-written case studies. There are a variety of state publications as well, usually published by a state genealogical society. There are also a variety of publications focusing on various ethnic groups, which usually present their own unique problems.
Devising a Plan
The plan may be simple or complex, depending upon the situation, but it should be fairly specific:
Writing down your plan is also necessary so that research efforts can be tracked. Polya suggested math students look at similar problems. Genealogical educators would suggest looking at case studies written about similar families in the same area and time period. What helped one person solve their problem may help you solve yours.
Carrying Out the Plan
And when our question is not answered, we also return to step one. Perhaps there was something we overlooked, a record we did not understand, an assumption we should not have made, a term we misinterpreted, a name we overlooked, a spelling we did not consider.
Next week we will take a look at some genealogy problems viewed through this set of steps. There are other ways to organize and solve genealogy problems to be certain. Failing to organize your research can easily add to your confusion and may even create brick walls where none existed.
Michael John Neill is the Course I Coordinator at the Genealogical Institute of Mid America (GIMA) held annually in Springfield, Illinois, and is also on the faculty of Carl Sandburg College in Galesburg, Illinois. Michael is currently a member of the board of the Federation of Genealogical Societies (FGS) www.fgs.org. He conducts seminars and lectures nationally on a wide variety of genealogical and computer topics and contributes to several genealogical publications, including Ancestry Magazine and Genealogical Computing. You can e-mail him at firstname.lastname@example.org or visit his website at www.rootdig.com, but he regrets that he is unable to assist with personal research.
Copyright 2005, MyFamily.com.